The seven factors that influence parenting styles are familiarity, children’s age, gender, temperament, family size, education and culture, and stress. Familiarity and experience influence parents into their preferred parenting style. Parents may often unconsciously raise their children the way they were raised because they are familiar with that parenting style. Although for that same reason parents may choose to take a different approach with their children. A child’s age also contributes to a parent’s type of parenting style. Ellen Galinsky’s six stages of parenting illustrates a child’s development and the changes a parent should make to adjust their child-rearing style based on each stage (Marotz & Kupyzk, 2018, p. 138). For example, an adolescent should be treated with a different approach than a toddler. The next factor that may influence parenting styles is gender. Researchers found that older female siblings are held at higher academic standards than their younger male siblings. It is also said that mothers are more demanding towards their sons while their fathers are lax. A child and their parents’ temperament can also influence their interactions and child-rearing practices. If a child and their parent’s temperament clash, then this can harm the child’s social-emotional development as well as their relationship. When family size increases parents may resort to an authoritarian parenting style. Families with fewer children tend to be more attentive and careful of their child’s needs because immediate compliance is not necessary. When parents have more education, they tend to practice an authoritative style. In recent years parents have leaned towards the authoritative style because they are beginning to understand the positive effects this approach can have. Lastly, stress can also affect a parent’s child-rearing style. Stress can affect the emotions of either the parent or the child resulting in a change of parenting style. Anxiety and stress lead to a more authoritarian approach in parents.
Marotz, L. R. & Kupyzk, S. (2018) Parenting today’s children: A developmental perspective. Boston, MS: Cengage Learning